The BMS or the Battery Management System is the essential component required in an electric vehicle. It helps in controlling and monitoring the operations of the Lithium-ion batteries of an EV. Since the Li-ion cells are the only power source for the electric vehicle, and the demand for such automobiles will increase in the future, we need the manufacturing and production of efficient BMS controllers. Although the EV infrastructure and battery technology are the key components for expanding Electric Mobility in the nation, the building of a robust Battery Management System is the highest requirement for the Industry.
What is a BMS (Battery Management System)?
The Battery Management System or the BMS controller is a dedicated system used to track and effectively administer all the Lithium-ion battery pack activities. Lithium-ion cells are small, but when arranged in a battery pack, they are highly unstable. Special attention must be given to the Li-ion batteries’ charging time since they get overheated easily and can cause uncertain accidents. Therefore a Battery Management System is required for efficient handling and controlling the cells. The BMS controller is used where there is an effective use of Li-ion battery packs. For example, an electric vehicle, solar panels, windmills, etc., all of these consist os such type of managing controlling device that helps in dynamic operations and monitoring of the battery packs.
There are typically three types of Battery Management Systems that are Modular BMS, Centralized BMS, and Distributed BMS. The primary function of all the different types of battery management systems revolve around effectively monitoring the operations of the Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack. The Current value, Voltage, and temperature are necessarily required to track, control, and manage the battery packs in the various machinery. The temperature or the thermal parameter is the most critical factor while maintaining the cells inside the battery packs. It may vary harshly in its respective temperature range, or may even become hotter than prescribed values. Therefore, the BMS controller, along with the cooling systems, works in coordination to maintain the temperature of the battery packs, which help in its efficient working.
Why do we need the Battery Management System in an Electric vehicle?
The Lithium-ion battery packs have proven the best and effective power output for the performance of electric vehicles. The cells in the pack are very lightweight, yet are a high-density energy source. Therefore, the charging time and other operations are needed to be monitored by the BMS controllers. The BMS needs to perform the major three tasks. Firstly, it takes care of the State of Charge (SOC) and cell balancing. The Battery Management System also monitors the State of Health (SOH) of the batteries. It also takes care of the general condition of the Li-ion cells and handles the performance and its ability to deliver it successfully.
Lithium-ion batteries are the only source to power electric vehicles. Therefore, a robust Battery Management System is required to monitor, control, and protect the battery operations. Since there are many calculations related to SOC and SOH, it requires proper integration of AI and Machine Learning, which is taken care of by the BMS controller. All the battery packs come with an operating range. That means the battery packs must not be overcharged and should not be depleted to zero percent. It decreases the life and performance efficiency of the batteries. The Battery Management System used in electric vehicles takes care of its accuracy and charging patterns.
The BMS is not a new concept in Electric Mobility, yet the companies try to research and improve the management system. For the upcoming models of EVs, manufacturers, along with the designers, are working on improving the design, space occupancy, and redesigning the built of the system. The Battery Management Systems used to date are complex and have a complicated electronics and wiring system. Therefore, the researchers and the team are working on the wireless BMS controllers, which will help reduce the size of the system and be placed per manufacturer’s requirements. It will lead to a flexible Battery Management System that will result in advancement in handling and controlling the batteries.